Second Battle of Panipat


Second Battle of Panipat

Second Battle of Panipat was a decisive battle fought between  Mughal ruler Akbar and the Hindu ruler Hemu Vikramaditya on 5th November 1556.

This battle marked the end of short lived Hindu rule from the seat of Delhi.

  Hemu ‘Vikramaditya’                                                                                  Akbar

 Army of 30,000 men                                                                    Army of 10,000 men

Hemu Vikramaditya

Hemu Vikramaditya was born in Rewari district of Haryana. He started his career as a Superintendent of market under Sher Shah Suri’s son Islam Shah of Sur empire. Later under the rule of Adil Shah Suri he rose to the position of Chief Minister. He won 22 battles for Adi Shah. After the death of Humanyun on 5th January 1556, Hemu left Bengal to recapture the lost territory of North India. On 7 October 1556 in the Battle of Tughlaqabad  Hemu defeated Mughal forces led by led by Tardi Beg Khan. He adopted the title of ‘Vikramaditya’ after this battle.

Sur Dynasty

Ruler Reigning years
Sher Shah Suri 1532-1545
Islam Shah Suri 1554
Firoz Shah Suri 1554-1555
Muhammad Adil Shah 1555
Ibrahim Shah suri 1555
Sikandar Shah Suri  1555
Adil Shah Suri 1555-1556


Akbar sat on the throne when he was just 13 years old because of the untimely death of his father Humayun. During his initial years most of his battles was fought by his commander in chief Bairam Khan. 

Reasons for the Second Battle of Panipat

After Battle of Tughlaqabad on 7 October 1556 Akbar was eager to recapture Delhi back from Hemu. From Mughal side Akbar forces were led by Bairam Khan whereas Akbar was stationed 8 miles away from the battlefield. 

Consequences of the Second Battle of Panipat

Although Hemu forces were almost 3 times in number as that of Akbar. But it was sheer luck that one of the arrows pierced the eye of Hemu and became unconscious. This created a havoc and confusion in the army of Hemu resulted in the defeat of Hemu’s army in the Second Battle of Panipat.

It led to the establishment of Mughal Rule in India for another 300 years to come.



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