What are revolutionary activities?
Revolutionary activities during British rule in India was the by product of movements of Russian nihilists and the Irish nationalists. Its main features are:
- Individual heroic actions
- Assassinations of unpopular British officials
- Conducting Swadeshi activities
- Organizing military conspiracies
Revolutionary activities in India
First revolutionary activity in Bengal was organised in 1902 in Midnapore under the leadership of Jnanendranath Basu.
In Calcutta Anushilan Samiti was founded in 1902 by Promotha Mitter. It includes members like Jatindranath Banerjee & Barindra Kumar Ghosh. Yugantar a weekly newspaper was started by the Anushilan group.
- In 1879,Ramosi Peasant Force by organised by Vasudev Balwant Phadke. It aimed to organise an armed revolt against the British rule.
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak instilled the spirit of nationalism through Ganpati and Shivaji festivals.
- Veer Savarkar and his brother organised Mitra Mela in 1899 which later merged with Abhinav Bharat.
- In Punjab it was Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh who organised revolutionary activities in Punjab.
- Lala Lajpat Rai started a newspaper named “Punjabee” and Ajit Singh organised an extremist organisation “Anjuman-i-Mohisban-i-Watan” to spread the revolutionary movement.
Hindustan Republican Association: It was founded in 1924 in Kanpur by Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee and Sachin Sanyal. Its main aim was to overthrow the colonial government and establish a Federal Republic of the United States of India.
In September 1928 its name was changed to Hindustan Republic Socialist Organization . Revolutionary leaders like Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Bhagwaticharan Vohra & many other revolutionaries joined this group.
Famous Revolutionary Movement during British rule
- Alipore Conspiracy Case: In 1908, Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose threw a bomb at a carriage carrying white judge, Kingsford in Muzaffarpur. Ghosh Brothers, Aurbindo Ghosh and Barindra Dutta was tried in Alipore Conspiracy Case. Narendra Gosain who had turned approver was shot down in the jail.
- Delhi Conspiracy Case: Rashbehari Bose and Sachin Sanyal threw bomb on Viceroy Hardinge in New Delhi in 1912. However, he was escaped unhurted in this attack.
- Chapekar Brothers murdered the Plague Commissioner of Poona, Rand and Lt. Ayerest in 1897.
- Curzon Wyllie Assassination: Madanlal Dhingra assassinated the India office bureaucrat Curzon-Wyllie in 1909.
- Kakori Conspiracy Case: Train robbery was done by the members of Hindustan Republican Association near Kakori in Uttar Pradesh. It includes revolutionaries like Ram Prasad Bismil, Chandrashekhar Azad, Rajendra Lahiri & many more.
- Lahore Conspiracy Case: To avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Chandrashekhar Azad killed a British police officer named JP Saunders.
- Chittagong Armoury Raid: It was led by Surya Sen at the Chittagong District of Bengal in April 1930. He planned to occupy the main armouries in Chittagong so as to destroy the telephone and telegraph lines linked to Chittagong.
- Central Assembly Bomb Case(1931): Bhagat Singh and BK Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly of the House at Delhi. Nobody was killed as their main intention was to not to hurt anyone but to popularize the revolutionary activities.