Quit India Movement
- Quit India Movement was launched by the Congress in August 1942. It is also known as “August Kranti”.
- Quit India Resolution was ratified at the Congress meeting at Gowalai Tank, Bombay on August 8,1942. Here Gandhiji gave the famous mantra to all Indian “Do or Die”.Congress resolved to:
- Demand an immediate end to British rule in India.
- Commitment of free India to defend itself from all types of Fascism and Imperialism.
- Form a Provisional Government of India after the withdrawal of Britishers from India.
- To sanction a Civil Disobedience movement against British rule.
- It was totally unplanned movement and only leaderless mass movement of India as many important leaders including Gandhiji was arrested before the actual launch of the movement.
Background of the QIM:
- Failure of the Cripps Mission.
- With the starting of World War II, it brought many hardships for the people of India.Price of the essential goods like rice & salt got increased because of the transfer of the food supplies to the European soldiers.
- Success of the Axis powers in the South East Asia gave an impression that Britishers would leave the India to its fate.
- Japan had reached till Burma so it was opined that if British left India then there would be no threat of Japanese invasion.
Spread of the movement
- On the early morning of 9th August,1942 all the important leaders like Gandhiji, Jawahar Lal Nehru & Sardar Patel got arrested. Hearing this news general public became restless and all the symbols of the authority were targeted.
- Bridges were blown up, railway tracks were removed and telegraph lines were cut. Quit India Movement was most extensive in the areas of United Province and Bihar.
- There were strikes in schools and colleges.
- One of the main feature of this movement was the underground activities associated with it. Members of Socialist Party, Forward Bloc, Revolutionary organisations and other local groups started underground radio to provide leadership to the masses at the time of Government repression.
- Leaders associated with underground activities were Rammanohar Lohia, JP Narayan, Aruna Asif Ali, Usha Sharma & Sucheta Kriplani.
Parallel Government meant that Government which are state like in their structure and functioning but are informal in nature.
- In Balia in August 1942 under the leadership of Chittu Pandey.
- Bidyut Bahinis organised parallel government in Tamluk district of West Bengal from December 1942 to September 1944.
- In Satara, Parallel Government under the leadership of Y.B. Chavan & Nana Patil was organised. They opened Village libraries, Nyayadan Mandals and Gandhi Marriages were organised.
Youth, Women, workers, peasants,Government officials,Communists, Princely States and Muslims showed unparalleled interest in the Quit India Movement.
- Crowds were lathi charged, tear gassed & imprisoned.
- There was severe restriction on press.
- Military took over the cities and many secret services were cropped up.
- Over 1,00,000 people were imprisoned and more than 10,000 people were killed in police firing.