Peasant Movements 1
Area: Bengal (Main center Nadia)
Leaders: Digambar Biswas and Bishnu Biswas
- Planters forced the peasants to grow indigo on their land.
- Fraudulent contracts and atrocities done by planters on the ryots.
- Bengali Intelligentsia supported peasants movements through meetings and prepared grievances for peasants.
- Indigo commission was set up Government to look into the matter.
- It recommended that ryots can’t be compelled to grow Indigo.
Pabna Agrarian League
Area: East Bengal specially Patna
Leaders: Indians like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, R.C. Dutt and Surendranath Banerjee supported this revolt.
- Enhanced rent by the zamindars beyond legal limits.
- Tenants were ceased from acquiring occupancy rights under Act X of 1859.
- Atrocities done by the zamindars on the peasants.
- Pabna Revolt was completely non violent in nature. There was legal struggle by the ryots against the zamindars.
- Ryots refused to pay the enhanced rents and funds were raised to fight court cases.
- In 1885, the Bengal Tenancy Act was passed by the Government to protect the tenants from the zamindars.
Area: Bombay Deccan Region
Leaders: Poona Sarvajanik Sabha co-founder M G Ranade supported this movement
- High land revenue policy under the Ryotwari settlement.
- During American Civil War there was increase in demand of cotton from India. Moneylenders who were generous during this time became oppressive once the American Civil War got over.
- There was social boycott movement organised by the ryots against the moneylenders.
- Account books, shops and houses of the moneylenders were attacked.
- Deccan Riots Commission was set up which gave its report in the British Parliament in 1878.
- In 1879, the Agriculturists Relief Act was passed by the Government which provided relief to the ryots from arrest and imprisonment.
Kisan Sabha Movement
Area: In the areas of Uttar Pradesh specially Rai Bareilly, Faizabad, Sultanpur and Awadh
Years: Started after 1857 revolt but got momentum in the 1920s
UP Kisan Sabha in February 1918 by Gauri Shankar Mishra and Indra Narayan Dwivedi
- In 1857 revolt moneylenders supported the Britishers against Indian rebellions. So, after the revolt taluqdars got back their land holdings. From here the atrocities like high rents, summary evictions & illegal levies were done on ryots.
- Hiked prices of the food products and other necessities after World War I.
- UP Kisan Sabha and Awadh Kisan Sabha were set up in Uttar Pradesh. Prominent leaders like Madan Mohan Malaviya, Baba Ramchandra and JL Nehru supported the cause of these ryots.
- Awadh Kisan sabha asked the peasants to not to do unpaid labor and asked for social boycotts of those peasants who refused to do so.
- In the early 1920s there was looting of bazaars & granaries.
- Movement got declined with passing of Awadh rent(Amendment) Act.
Area: Northern districts of united Provinces- Hardoi, Bahraich, Sitapur
Leaders: Leadership provided by Madari Pasi
- High rents: 50% higher than recorded rates
- Oppression of revenue collection officers
- Pay only recorded rent
- Not to leave the place when force eviction was there.
- Refused to do forced labor.
- Abide by the decisions of leaders.