Background of Nehru Report:
- Simon Commission was appointed by the British Government to recommend whether India was ready for further constitutional reforms or not. It consists of 7 members among them nobody was Indian.
- Congress session under the presidency of M.A. Ansari decided to boycott the commission. Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha decided to support the congress on this issue.
- Seeing the countrywide protest against the Simon Commission, Lord Birkenhead challenged the Indian politicians to make a Constitution which should be accepted by all the political parties. Nehru Report was the answer to the Lord Birkenhead challenge.
- All Parties Conference met in February 1928 and appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Moti Lal Nehru too draft a Constitution.
- It was the first major attempt by the Indians to draft a constitution for the country.
- Committee includes members such as Tej Bahadur Sapru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Mangal Singh, Ali Imam, M.S. Aney, Shuab Qureshi and G.R. Pradhan.
- Recommendations of the Nehru Report came in August 1928.
Major recommendations of the Nehru Report were:
- Dominion status should be given to India.
- Demand for the Joint Electorates instead of Separate Electorates for the Muslims at the Centre and at the Provinces.
- Provinces to be made on the Linguistic basis.
- Bicameral legislature at the Centre consisting of Senate and House of Representatives. Senate consists of 200 members which are elected for 7 years while House of Representatives will consists 500 members elected for a period of 5 years.
- Central Government should be headed by Governor General. Governor general will act on the advice of Governor General executive Council. Executive Council will be responsible to the Parliament.
- Judiciary should be separated from the executive.
- Reservation of 1/4th seats for the Muslims at the Centre.
- Separation of religion from the State affairs.
- Residual powers vested at the Centre.
- Proposal for the creation of Sind as a Muslim Majority Province.
Reactions from Muslim League:
- 1/3rd representation to the Muslims at the centre instead of proposed 1/4th.
- Reservation of the Muslims in Bengal and Punjab in proportion to their population.
- Residual power should be given to the Provinces.
Reaction from Congress and Hindu Mahasabha:
- Younger Congress leaders like Jawahar Lal Nehru and Subash Chandra Bose were against the idea of Dominion Status. They want complete independence from the British rule.
- Hindu Mahasabha was opposed to the proposal for creating a new Muslim majority province.