Government of India Act, 1935
Government of India Act, 1935 was the most elaborative Act ever published by the Britishers. Government of India Act had 321 sections and 10 schedules. It was divided into two Acts: Government of India Act 1935 and Government of Burma Act 1935. While Government of Burma Act had 159 sections and 6 schedules.
Its provision were borrowed from:
- Simon Commission Report
- Recommendations of the Round Table Conference
- White Paper published by the Conservative dominated British Government in London
- Report of the Joint Select Committees headed by Lord Linlithgow.
Reason for the Government of India Act , 1935:
- Growing demand of constitutional reforms from the Indian Nationalist.
- Need for the greater role of Indians in the administration of the British India
Features of the Act:goi act 1935 upsc
Dyarchy at the Centre
- Government of India Act, 1935 abolished Dyarchy at the provinces which was introduced in Government of India 1919 Act. But it introduced the system of Dyarchy at the Centre.
- Subjects were divided into three lists: Federal List at the Central Level, Provinces List at the Provincial Level and the Concurrent List for both Centre and the Provinces.
- Power to make laws on the Residuary subjects was vested with the Viceroy.
All India Federation
- This Federation would consist of 11 Provinces of British India ,6 Chief Commissioners Provinces and Princely States of British India.
- However this federation could not came up because of the less support from the Princely States.
At the Provincial level
- Dyarchy at the provincial level which was established by the Government of India 1919, Act was abolished.
- Governor was the head of the state. He was assisted by a Council of Ministers.
- Provision of Provincial Autonomy was introduced at the Provinces. Provinces were free from the control of the Central Government except in case of suspension of the Provincial Government.
The Bicameral Federal Legislature would consists of two houses: Council of States which consists of 260 members and Federal Assembly which contains 375 members.
- Indian Council which was established through Betterment of India Act,1858 was abolished.
- Federal Court as the Apex Court was established at the Centre to resolve dispute between Provinces and the Provinces and the Centre.
- Provision for the establishment of Reserve Bank of India.
- This Act provided the provision for the establishment of Federal, Provincial and Joint Public Service Commission.
- Total 10% of the population got the voting rights.