Charter of India Act
Regulating Act 1773
- It designated the office of Governor of Bengal as the Governor General of Bengal. Office of Governor of Bombay & Madras was subordinated to the office of Governor general of Bengal.
- Governor General of Bengal was to be assisted by a Council of 4 members who were called as Councillors.These Councillors would hold thee office for a period of 5 years.
- Supreme Court was established at Calcutta with 1 Chief Justice and 3 Subordinate judges. The first Chief Justice was Elijah Impey.
- This Act provided the appointment of Court of Proprietors that would be electing the highest authority of the Company known as Court of Directors. They were 24 in number and would be elected for a period of 4 years.
Pitts India Act 1784
- Pitts India Act established an authority known as Board of Controls which was above the Court of Directors.It has 6 members out of which 2 are from the British cabinet Ministers. This came to be known as the system of Double Government because Governor General Executive Council was subordinated to 2 authorities(Court of Directors and Board of Control).
- After this Act Company territories were called ‘British Possessions’ in India & British Government was given the supreme control over Company’s affairs & its administration.
- Strength of the Governor General Executive Council was reduced from 4 to 3.
- The members of the Governor General Executive Council was to be from India Covenanted Service.
Charter Act, 1793
- This Act extended privilege of the Company for another 20 years.
- Governor General of Bengal has overriding powers over his council in matters of safety, peace and interests of the Empire in India.
- Commander-in-Chief could not be a member of the executive council by that very fact.
- Laws made in India would be translated into Indian languages.
- Salaries of the Board of control could be decided by the British Government but paid through the Indian revenues.
Charter Act of 1813
- The Act extended the monopoly of company in trade except in trade in tea & trade with China.
- It permitted the Christian Missionaries to enter into India subject to their getting permission from Court of Directors or Board of Control.
- The Act laid down 1 lac rupees for the spread of education in India.
Charter Act of 1833
- It ended the earlier exception of trade with China and trade in tea.
- The Governor General of Bengal was given a new designation known as Governor General of India. Executive powers over the entire British India was given to this Governor General Executive council.
- For Legislative purposes Governor General and his council was given an additional member who would be a legal expert and this bigger authority came to known as Governor General Legislative Council.
- Governor General Legislative Council was formed to make the laws for the country.
- The Act provided that while appointing anyone in the services of the company no discrimination based on race, religion, caste & color be followed.
- The Act said that Government of India should take steps for the improvement of condition of slaves.
- The Charter Act of 1833 first time introduced the provision of open competition for recruitment in Indian Covenanted services.
Charter Act of 1853
- The Act extended the privilege of the Company to keep its territory till the time Parliament called for.
- The number of members in Court of Directors were reduced from 24 to 18, out of which 6 were nominated by the crown.
- For legislative purposes 6 additional members were added. Legal member that was added in 1833 Act was included in the Governor General Executive Council.
- It provided for open competition of the Indian Covenanted Services (ICS).