Anglo French War (Carnatic War)
Anglo French War also known as Carnatic War was fought between English and French forces on Indian land. These wars are generally the extension of their European rivalry in India. Both the powers started as a traders in India but by passing time their political influence and settlement started increasing in India. But in the end it was British which survived as a lone warrior and continued their colonial rule in India till 1947.
Mains reasons for English success are
- British East India Company was a private company whereas French EIC was a government entity. So, English officers were swift in decision making and more independent than their French counterparts.
- English controlled major trading centers in India like Bengal, Madras and Bombay whereas French consolidated their power only in Pondicherry.
- There were many competent officers in English forces like Sir Eyre Coote, Robert Clive & Stinger Lawrence whereas French had only Dupleix.
First Carnatic War
First Carnatic war was the extension of Austria’s War of Succession in India. It was a battle of Succession in Austria after the death of Emperor Charles VI of Habsburg Monarchy. It took place between 1740-48.
English Commander in Chief Curtis Barnett captured French ships in 1745. In retaliation to this French Governor Dupleix with the aid of La Bourdonnais captured Madras in 1746. In 1748 British troops be seized Pondicherry.
End of the War:
With the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle Austria’s War of Succession came to an end. Under this treaty French was ordered to give back Madras to British forces.
Significance of the Battle:
Battle of Adyar fought between Nawab of Arcot Anwaruddin’s son Mahfuz Khan and French leader Paradis. In this battle small but disciplined French army of 900 soldiers successfully defended Fort St. george against the large but ineffective 10,000 army of Nawab of Arcot.
Second Carnatic War
Second Carnatic war was fought between 1749-1754.
Background of Second Carnatic War was the rivalry between the successors of Carnatic and Hyderabad dynasty.
After the death of Nizam-ul-Mulk in 1748, the war of succession between his grandson Muzaffar Jung and Nizam-ul-Mulk’s second son Nasir Jung started.
Whereas in Carnatic Anwaruddin held the position of Nawab of Carnatic from 1743, but with the death of Nizam-ul-Mulk his position became dicey. In the meantime Chanda Sahib son in law of previous year ruler of Carnatic Dost Ali Khan with the ally of French claimed his position as the next rightful heir of Carnatic.
French supported Muzaffar Jang while British sided with Nasir Jang in Hyderabad. While in the Carnatic French supported Chanda Sahib while Anwar-ud-Din.
in was supported by English.
|French||Muzzafar Jung||Chanda Sahib|
Result of the War:
In the end Salabat Jung son of Nizam-ul-Mulk became the Nizam of Hyderabad. Wheras in Carnatic accoring to the terms of Treaty of Pondicheery(1754) Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah an ally of British sat on the throne of Arcot.
French Governor Dupleix was called back in 1754 and Charles Godeheu was sent as his replacement.
Third Carnatic War
Third Carnatic war was the extension of Seven Years War(1756-63) in Europe. In 1758, French army under Count De Lally captured Fort St.David which was under British protection.
During the War
Battle of Wandiwash(1760) acted as Waterloo moment for the french Empire in India. English Army under General Eyre Coote defeated French army under Count De Lally.
Although with Treaty of Paris in 1763 French was restored with its original territories but just like other European powers it was restricted to a small corner without any political significance.
British became the sole major European power in India.