Battle of Plassey: 23rd June 1757
Reasons for the Battle of Plassey
- Misuse of the Dastaks issued by the Farrukhsiyar in 1717. Dastak allowed only exemption of taxes for import and export but not for internal trade among the Company’s servants. Company misused this farman to their advantage.
- New Nawab of Bengal wanted to maintain his suzerainty over Bengal like his predecessors but during middle 1750s company’s position has changed a lot. Their aspirations have changed from being merchants only to the “Masters of India”.
French troops were stationed at Chandernagore. So, in apprehension of any attack from French ,British started fortifying Fort William.
Siraj-ud-Daula considered this as an attack on his sovereignty.
Course of Battle
When Siraj-ud-Daula ascended the throne Bengal was occupied by many internal differences. Commander of army Mir Jaffar, Ghaseti Begum and group of influential Hindu population which was not happy with the nawab(Amichand,Jagat seth) forged a secret alliance against the Nawab.
Result of the Battle
With just an army of 3,000 men Robert Clive defeated strong 50,000 men of Siraj-ud-Daula because of the treachery committed by the Mir Jaffar. Siraj-ud-Daula was captured and killed by the Mir Jaffar’s son Miran. In return for the treachery committed by the Mir Jaffar, he was made Nawab of Bengal by the company.
Company got the right to to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
Battle of Buxar:1764
Timeline of events prelude to battle of Buxar
- After sitting on the throne Mir jafar realized that it was impossible to satisfy all of the company’s needs.
- Mir Jafar made a secret alliance with Dutch Rulers to ousted the Company rule.Although Dutch was defeated comprehensively by the Britishers in battle of Battle of Chinsurah in 1759.
- Mir Jafar’s son in law Mir Qasim was made Nawab of Bengal in 1760.
- Mir Qasim opposed the British interference in day to day activities and baliant misuse of dastak by the British officials.
- He shifted the capital of Bengal from Murshidaba to Munger to establish an independent army.
- In 1763 a war broke out between Company and Mir Qasim in which Company came out victorious.
- In 1764 Mir Qasim fled to Awadh and forged an alliance with the Nawab of awadh Shuja-ud Daula and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
- Combined forces of Bengal, Awadh and Mughal fought against the British forces led by Hector Munro at Buxar on 22 october 1764.
Result of the Battle
Although Combined army of Bengal, Awadh and Mughal were large in number but it was overcome by small but disciplined army of Hector Munro.
- Battle of Plassey was won by deceit and treachery by the Company but Battle of Buxar proved the mightiness of British empire in India.
- It proved the superiority of English arms over Indian conventional arms and weapons.
- Signing of the ‘Treaty of Allahabad”.
- Company gained ‘Nizamat’ (Administration) Rights of Bengal and ‘Diwani’ (Revenue) Rights of Bengal ,Bihar and Orissa from the Mughal Emperor.
- Nawab of Awadh was made to pay a 5 million rupees as war indemnity.