Anglo Sind War
Importance of Sind for Britishers
- Sind is the bordering region of Gujarat, Rajasthan,Punjab region of present day Pakistan and Afghanistan. It’s a gateway to the west.
- To increase Company’s influence in Afghanistan and Punjab it was necessary for the Company to have maximum control over Sind.
- To obtain commercial advantage of the river Sind.
- Anglo Russian rivalry and fear of Napoleon’s conspiracy with Tipu sultan against Britishers made them realize the importance of strategic location of Sind.
Gradual Exploitation of Sind
- Between 1761-1775 during the reign of Ghulam Shah there was complete monopoly of British in terms of foreign relations with the other state.
- Treaty of Eternal Friendship in 1807 to counter Russia and Napoleon Bonaparte threat from the Sind.
- Treaty of 1832 by signed by William Bentick with the Amirs of Sind. It was a treaty of mutual respect and non aggression against each other.
- Treaty of 1838 by Lord Auckland with the Amirs. Auckland convinced Amirs about the possible incursion from Maharaja Ranjit Singh and compelled Amirs to sign the treaty. According to the terms and conditions of the treaty Company troops would be stationed at the capital of the Sindh at the Amir’s expenses.
- Finally in 1839, Sind signed Subsidiary alliance.
Final Conquest of Sind (1839-42)
- Amir’s were made responsible for the British troops reversal in the war against Afghanistan. Amir’s were made to cede important provinces of Sind.
- English intervened in succession dispute over Sind. This made the Amir’s to rose in revolt.
- Finally in 1843, Ellenbourgh sent Charles Napier to Sind. In a short but decisive battle Amir’s were banished from the Sind and got merged into British empire.
- Napier was appointed as the First Governor of Sind.