Anglo Sikh War
Maharaja Ranjit Singh(1780-1839) was born in Sukarchakiya Misl of Punjab. In 1799 he was made governor of Lahore by Zaman Shah,ruler of Afghanistan. Later he acquired Jammu, Amritsar & Lahore.
Treaty of Lahore
- Treaty of Lahore was signed between Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the Company on 25th April 1809.
- To check Napoleon’s threat.
- To check expansion of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s empire till Satluj river only.
First Anglo Sikh War( 1845-46)
Sudden death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839 created a political vacuum in the Kingdom of Punjab.
Unilateral breach of Treaty of Lahore by the British officials by stationing troops near the Punjab.
During the Battle
Official war between Sikhs and the British was declared on 13th December 1845.
Though Punjab army fought fiercely but due to weak leadership and treachery committed by Lal Singh and Commander-in-Chief Misar Tej Singh they had to face heavy defeat from the hands of British led by Hugh Gough.
Sikhs were forced to sign the “Treaty of Lahore” on 8th march 1846.
Terms of “Treaty of Lahore”
- Jallandar Doab was given to the Company.
- British resident was established at Lahore.
- Kashmir was annexed from the Punjab and sold to Maharaja Gulab Singh.
- Strength of the Punjab army was reduced to 20,000 infantry and 12,000 cavalry.
Second Anglo Sikh War
Arrival of Lord Dalhousie in 1848 marked the beginning of direct imperialism in India. He wanted to expand British dominion as far as possible in Indian subcontinent.
Reasons for Second Anglo Sikh War
- Inhumane treatment of Maharani Jindan kaur by the Britishers.
- Killing of the two English officers by the angry mob of Multan on the orders of Ruler of Multan, Mulraj.
- Revolt by the Hindu Ruler of Multan, Mulraj created a scene of anarchy and annihilation in the region of Multan.
- This gave an opportunity to Lord Dalhousie to completely annex Punjab.
During the Battle
Hugh Gough was called again by the Lord Dalhousie to led British army against Sikhs led by Sher Singh.
After initial victories at Ramnagar Sikhs were finally defeated in the conclusive Battle of Gujarat in 1849.
Consequences of the Battle
- Punjab was formally incorporated into the British east India company on 2nd April 1849.
- Increase in the recruitment of British troops in British East India Company’s Army.
- Punjab army played a huge role in the suppression of 1857 revolt.