Anglo Mysore War
Haider Ali was an illiterate but highly skilled and intellectual soldier in Mysore Army. He started his career as a horseman but later rose to the Ruler of Mysore in 1761.
Haider Ali was aware of the fact that if strong and disciplined English Army had to be defeated superior artillery and tactful techniques are required. He trained his army in Western methods. He also opened an arms factory at Dindigul with the aid of French.
First Anglo mysore war
Background of the War
Nizam of Hyderabad and Marathas were alarmed with the rising power of Haider Ali. Even the Britishers after gaining their control over Bengal were confident about their power. So, Marathas, Nizam of Hyderabad & British forged an alliance to ousted Haider Ali from Mysore.
During the war
However somewhat in the middle of the war both Marthas and Nizam switched their sides to Haider Ali from British company.
The war broke out in 1767 and came to an end with the Treaty of Madras(1769) between Haider Ali and British East India company.
This treaty was more favourable to Haider Ali. According to this treaty in the case of any external aggression faced by any party then both had to assist each other. The treaty also provides for the restoration of territories of each other.
Second Anglo Mysore War (1780-84)
Background of the second Anglo Mysore war was provided by unilateral breach of Treaty of Madras by the Britishers. In 1771 when Marathas attacked Mysore Britishers didn’t care to help Haider Ali. This was against the terms of Treaty of Madras.
Another reason was the capture of Mahe port by the British army which was under Haider Ali’s protection.
During the War
Haider Ali forged an alliance with Nizam and the Marathas to counter the expansion of British Empire. But during the course of war Sir General Eyre Coote sided Nizam and the Marathas with the British leaving Haider Ali alone.
Haider Ali was defeated by British army under Sir Eyre Coote in the Battle of Porto Novo on 1 July 1781.
In 1782 Haider Ali died of cancer,after him his son Tipu Sultan continued the battle with the Britshers.
Results of the war
After 4 years of indecisiveness both the parties came to compromise through the Treaty of Mangalore(1784).
By the terms of this treaty both the parties restored each other territory.
Third Anglo Mysore War
Reasons of the war
- British sees Tipu as the hurdle between them and the complete subjugation of Southern India.
- Non compliance of the Treaty of Mangalore by Tipu.
- Dispute between Tipu and State of Travancore over Cochin state.
During the war
During the war English sided with the state of Travancore. Initially Tipu defeated British forces led by William Meadows. But after the arrival of Cornwallis and with the aid of Marathas and the Nizam Tipu suffered crushing defeat at Seringapatam.
Result of the war
Third battle of Mysore ended with Treaty of Seringapatam. Half of the territory of Mysore was given to British, Nizam and the Marathas. Tipu had to pay an indemnity of 330 lakhs rupees to British empire.
Fourth Anglo Mysore War
After the loss at Seringapatnam Tipu tried his level best to recoup his strength.
He strengthened his friendship with French and even sent missions to Afghanistan, Arabia and turkey to made Anti-British alliance.
After the arrival of Wellesley in 1798 ,he wanted to expand British empire and started imposing ‘Subsidiary Alliance’ in India. He was keen to subdue Mysore state into British empire.
During the War
In a short but fierce battle Tipu lost against the combined forces of English, Marathas and Nizam. Tipu died heroic death on May 4 1799 at Seringapatam. English forces were led by General Smuts, General Harris and Arthur Wellesley.
Consequences of the war
After the death of Tipu, Kingdom of Mysore was handed over to the minor ruler Krishnaraja III of Wodeyar dynasty who accepted the Subsidiary alliance in 1799.
|First Anglo Mysore War||1767-1769||Treaty of Madras||Haider Ali|
|Second Anglo Mysore War||1780-1784||Treaty of Mangalore||Haider Ali & Tipu Sultan|
|Third Anglo Mysore War||1790-1792||Treaty of Seringapatam||Tipu Sultan|
|Fourth Anglo Mysore War||1799||Subsidiary alliance||Tipu Sultan|