Anglo Maratha War

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First Anglo Maratha War

Reasons

  • Untimely death of Madhav Rao.
  • Defeat of Marathas in Third Battle of Panipat
  • War of succession between Narayan Rao(Madhav Rao minor son) supporters led by Nana Phadnavis and Raghunath Rao.
  • Raghunath Rao signed the “Treaty of Surat” with Britishers in 1775 to seek British aid to fight against supporters of Narayan Rao.

Result of the Battle

Although British secured victory against supporters of Narayan Rao. But “Treaty of Surat” was annulled by the Calcutta Council.

Aftermath first Anglo Maratha War

  • Treaty of Purandar” was signed  between Governor General Warren Hastings and Marathas. According to this treaty Narayan Rao was recognized as peshwa and Raghunath Rao was pensioned off. 
  • But with the apprehension of French Support to the Marthas , Governor General Warren Hastings attacked Marathas. 
  • Britishers were defeated in Battle of Wadgaon in 1779.
  • But the fight with the Marathas  continued till 1782 and war came to an end with ” Treaty of Salbai

Second Anglo Maratha War (1803-1805)

Reasons

  • Internal revolt among the Maratha confederacy
  • After the death of Madhav Rao II, Baji Rao II took over the throne of Peshwas.
  • But in Battle of Poona 1802, Holkar defeated Scindia’s and Peshwas.

During the Battle

  • Baji Rao II took the help of Britishers to avenge his defeat and signed the Treaty of Bassein.
  • By this treaty Subsidiary alliance was accepted by Peshwa.
  • However, Sindhias and Holkers opposed Treaty of Bassein and finally the united Marathas(Sindhias, Holkar & Bhosle) confront Britishers in Second Anglo Maratha War.

Result of the Second Anglo Maratha War

War ended with the defeat of Marathas in 1805. This battle ended the dominance of Maratha rule in India. It ended the last powerful kingdom of India.

Third Anglo Maratha War

Reasons

Reason for the Third Anglo Maratha war was the non cooperation of Marathas in suppressing Pindaris.

Pindaris: Pindaris were the part of irregular army of Maratha forces. After Second Anglo Maratha War ,Marathas abandon their forces which left  Pindaris jobless. So, they resort to criminal activities. British started Anti Pindari campaign and asked Maratha for their aid. 

But Pindaris being a part of Maratha army had an emotional connection with them and refused to cooperate with Britishers.

Result of the Third Anglo Maratha War

  • Governor General Warren Hastings decided to subdue Marathas completely. So, in Third and Final Anglo Maratha War Pehswa, Bhosle and Holkar forged a united front against Britishers. Marathas were finally defeated in 1818.
  • Seat of peshwa was abolished and Peshwa was exiled to Bithur.

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